Sailing the Sea of Sleep on a Water Pillow: Does It Work?
April 7, 2017 • By
Water pillows contain, you guessed it, water. Most water filled pillows are simply a plastic reservoir wrapped with polyester foam or down alternative fiberfill. Water pillows are popular due to their ability provide unchanging, solid support. Soft traditional pillows containing fill like down have a tendency to collapse under the weight under your head while you sleep, resulting in an uncomfortable downward bend in your neck. Water pillows, on the other hand, are capable of maintaining the same loft (thickness) regardless of how much pressure is applied, keeping your head elevated to an appropriate level. Water’s incompressible liquid nature offers unique benefits: it can’t be squashed down, yet it is adaptable and will conform to the shape of your head and neck.
Water pillows offer “proof” of improved sleep.
Water pillows are marketed as being “clinically shown to improve quality of sleep.” Manufacturers cite a 20 year old study conducted by Johns Hopkins University as proof that their products provide improved sleep: Cervical Pain: A Comparison of Three Pillows.
The objective of this study was “to compare three pillows with regard to pain intensity, pain relief, quality of sleep, disability, and overall satisfaction in subjects with benign cervical pain.”
The three pillows types compared were:
- a “standard pillow” — participants were asked to use their current pillow to serve as a reference (the study describes these as “usually a standard down or foam pillow.”)
- a roll pillow — roll pillows are traditionally cylinder shaped, approximately 6×15″ and filled with foam.
- a water-based pillow — the magical pain-reducing, sleep-improving pillow of our dreams.
The subjects in the study all suffered from persistent neck pain and were asked to rate both the quality of their rest and perceived pain reduction while using each of the three pillow types.
The study concluded that different pillow types could reduce pain and improve sleep quality. It showed that participants preferred the water pillow to both the neck roll and standard pillows. They perceived better sleep and reduced pain intensity when using the water pillow versus the alternatives.
The study’s results are easy for water pillow manufacturers to exaggerate.
The interpretation of the study used in water pillow marketing is a bit misleading. Yes, the water pillow was superior to the other pillows used in the study, but it’s easy to assert that it didn’t have very strong competition.
To say that the water pillow was better than a neck roll or an ill-defined “standard pillow isn’t really a stellar endorsement.
First, consider that the reference group of “standard pillows” filled with down or foam fill are definitely not a good choice for those suffering from neck pain. Both tend to slowly collapse during the night, resulting in inconsistent support. If your pillow is too thin, you’ve likely got an uncomfortable downward bend in your neck. Fold it in half or use two pillows and you’re often stuck with the opposite issue: an upward bend.
It’s understandable that soft down and foam pillows were lumped together as “standard” pillows in the study. These two pillow types dominated the pillow market at the time the study was conducted. The options have changed pretty substantially in the last 20 years; down and foam pillows are no longer the standard. Their market supremacy has been challenged by other supportive options like memory foam, latex and buckwheat hull pillows. Like water pillows, they all offer support that is superior to down and foam.
The neck roll (also known as a bolster or cervical pillow) is an unconventional product that isn’t easy to adjust to. In the western hemisphere, most of us are acclimated to rectangular 20×26″ pillows. A non-traditionally shaped pillow like a neck roll will take awhile to acclimate to. Personally, I’m unable to sleep on a neck roll. I’ve tried several and they simply do not provide enough loft for a side-sleeper like myself. They seem to be most popular with back sleepers who are a minority at only 14%.
My Water Pillow Experience
Before I relate my experience, I should acknowledge that I am not currently experiencing any type of neck pain. Thus, I’m not really qualified to say if a water pillow is truly more effective than a neck roll, down or foam pillows at reducing pain. I can, however, tell you if it’s supportive and comfortable!
I’d read about water pillows before, but this was the first time I tried one for myself. I did a little research and picked what seemed to be best water pillow. It had favorable reviews and seemed like a reputable brand.
When I pulled it out of the box, the water pillow didn’t seem any different than a traditional foam pillow.
It was very soft and was about 4″ thick without any water in it. I turned the pillow over and discovered a small circular screw cap which allows you to fill the pillow with water. The instructions showed that I should unscrew the cap and replace it with a small included funnel. I carefully filled the pillow with water. The instructions indicated the amounts of water required for soft, medium and firm, but I didn’t bother measuring. Instead, I just filled it straight from my kitchen sink’s faucet until it seemed appropriately full. I pushed the excess air out of the water bladder and carried it to my bedroom. A bit too thin… As I side sleeper, I need a high loft, firm pillow. I added a bit more water. After a few trips back and forth to my kitchen, I managed to adjust so that the loft seemed just right.
Most pillows aren’t adjustable like this. Despite a bit of extra effort, I really appreciated the ability to fine-tune my pillow’s loft.
A water pillow is hefty.
Once filled to my preference, my water pillow weighed 10.5 lbs. I don’t consider that a disadvantage. I suppose if you like to move your pillow around, you might consider that a shortcoming. I was a little nervous about moving it around because the seams and the fabric used in assembling the pillow didn’t look particularly durable.
Water pillows are supportive.
I was immediately able to feel a water-based pillows’ benefit. You sink your head into it and you don’t have to worry about it collapsing under the weight of your head in the middle of the night. Water is incompressible, so whatever loft you’ve fine-tuned is what you’ll get, consistently, night after night.
Water makes a unique sloshing sound.
The instructions made it clear that I needed to remove all the air from the pillow or it’d make a sloshing sound. Even with all the air squeezed out, it’ll makes a bit of noise when you move around on it. Some reviewers complain about the sounds produced by a water pillow, but I didn’t find it distracting in the least. In fact, I thought the sounds it made were rather soothing. Maybe I built up a tolerance in 80s when I slept on a waterbed…
The fiberfill overlay was way too compressible and far too soft for a side sleeper like myself.
The fiberfill wrapped around the water bladder was far too soft for my preference. When on my side, my head would sink deep into the soft fill until it met the resistance of the water bladder. When on my side, the sides of the pillow would push uncomfortably against my face. It made me feel slightly claustrophobic. I probably would have preferred it with less of the fiberfill.
Even when the water bladder is filled with a minimum amount of water, I imagine it would be too thick and soft for most stomach sleepers. Most water pillows are probably best suited for back sleepers.
A water pillow is not moldable.
I found the lack of moldability to be the water pillow’s biggest disadvantage. I couldn’t squish the pillow into the shape I desired because the water contained in the bladder always bounces back into the same rectangular shape. The fiberfill wrapped around the bladder offered a little bit of moldability, but it’s nothing like other malleable fill types like down or buckwheat.
Does a water pillow have a cooling effect?
The water pillow manufacturers don’t list cooling as a benefit, but It seemed like a possibility. I’d tested a cooling pillow insert filled with water once before and thought that perhaps this water pillow might have a similar cooling effect. This turned out to not be the case. When not in use, the water contained falls to room temperature and will feel quite cold to the touch due to the physics of heat transfer. The fibrefill acts as insulation between the water and your skin, so it turns out that there is no perceptible cooling effect.
After reading the product literature more carefully, I discovered that the water bladder was covered with a thin thermal insulation, which also serves to prevent heat transfer to the water. It actually felt a bit hot compared to my favorite pillow, which sat quietly on the floor waiting for the water experiment to run its course. That said, I doubt it’s any worse at staying at a comfortable temperature than most pillow types.
Water Pillow Verdict: Sink or Swim?
Water Pillow Benefits:
- Supportive — I’d say it’s a water pillow’s best attribute. Provided you’ve taken the time to fill it properly, a water pillow will consistently keeps your head elevated at just the right level all night long.
- Supposed Pain Relief — While I wasn’t able to determine if my water pillow was indeed capable of reducing pain, but the many positive reviews online and the Johns Hopkins study are evidence of a genuine benefit.
- Adjustable — Not many pillow types are adjustable. This is a huge advantage, because it can be very difficult to find the pillow that’s just right for you-they’re always either too thick or thin!
Water Pillow Negatives:
- Not moldable — There are no options with a water pillow-it won’t change shape. That pesky water always bounces back.
- Some types may be wrapped in a fiberfill that’s too soft— My water pillow was covered in a super soft fill that pushed upward awkwardly into the side of my face.
- Leaks (potentially) — I read several water pillow reviews online that mentioned leaks. A wet mattress and flat pillow aren’t conducive to good rest!
I was genuinely impressed with my water pillow. I’m certainly no convert, but I admit it wasn’t the gimmick that I expected it to be. I’ll be sticking with my buckwheat pillow.
As for the water pillows’ “proof” of superiority…
The results of the study show a preference for the water pillow compared to neck roll and “standard” pillows. I think it’s reasonable to assume that the participant’s preference for the water pillow was due specifically to their:
- adjustable loft. Being able to adjust your pillow so that you’re positioned in a neutral sleeping position is a big deal. Without adjustable loft, or very careful pillow purchases, you’re most likely sleeping on a pillow that is either too thick or too thin.
- great support. The study states that, “…if neck pain is exacerbated during sleep by poor head and neck support, then it is not surprising that individuals frequently awaken experiencing increased morning headaches and neck pain.” Proper, consistent head and neck support makes a big difference in quality of sleep.
20 years ago, maybe the water pillow was the best solution for many, but today we have far more pillow options that can provide the same or better benefits.
Water Pillow Alternatives
Many other supportive pillow types can work just as well if not better than a water pillow. Those considering a water pillow should also look into:
- buckwheat hull pillows. These unique, all natural, adjustable pillows are many chiropractor’s favorite.
- memory foam pillows. OK, I’m admittedly not super enthusiastic about these due to their potentially toxic components, but some swear buy them!
- latex pillows. Latex pillows are derived from the rubber tree and are very similar in feel to memory foam, sans toxic chemicals.